Introduced in 1996, the International Standard ISO 13232 for testing and analysis of motorcycle accidents provides a basis for the selection of the test scenarios. This standard defines 25 different types of collisions, the most typical accident is at a crossing at 50 km/h.

What are the phases of an accident??

Phase 1: Primary Impact 


  • This phase last approx. 250 ms, and consist of the following phases:


1. First contact of the motorcycle’s front tire with the vehicle (0 ms – 50 ms)



2. Forward motion of the Motorcyclist (50 ms – 150 ms): lthe pelvis glides over the gas tank, the legs are stretched and raised and move the upper part of the body


3. Initial contact of the rider with the vehicle (150 ms – 250 ms):  The motorcyclist’s initial impact with the vehicle is with the head and thorax, the energy from the head rotation causes the cervical vertebrae to get overloaded

Phase 2: Flight 


This phase last approx.

600 ms from where the end first impact, and as an effect of the motorcyclist pitch inertia is gained, which launches the motorcyclist over the vehicle and hits the ground on the other side.

Phase 3: Secondary impact


This phase starts approximately 860 ms after from the start of the accident, when the motorcyclist impacts the ground after the Flight phase, generally causing major trauma in the head and thoracic zones

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